8 Things You Never Knew About Your Dog’s Paws

When you are a dog lover, it’s easy to find the cuteness in everything about them.  From their head to their toes, they’re adorable. But have you given much thought to your pooch’s toes?  Or their entire paw for that matter?

Your dog’s paws are more than a mode of transportation.  They say a lot about a breed’s purpose.  Even if you own a mixed breed dog, their paws can tell you a lot.

And they’re important to your dog’s overall well being.

Since it’s getting hot in some parts of the country, especially in Arizona, it’s important to gather some paw knowledge so you can take care of them in the heat.

And it’s always fun to learn a few new facts about your best friend.  Here are 8 things you might not know about your dog’s paws.

1)   Dogs’ paws come in 2 basic shapes, cat and hare.

Cat-shaped paws are compact, small and round.  They can bear a lot of weight because the shape allows for stability and endurance.  Most large working dog breeds like Newfoundlands, Doberman Pinschers and Akitas have cat-shaped feet.

Hare-shaped paws resemble the paws of a rabbit or hare.  They have two elongated central toes that are longer than the outer toes.  This allows for speed and the ability to get a quick start from a resting position.  Not surprisingly Greyhounds, Whippets and Borzois all have hare-shaped paws.

Paws can also be webbed whether cat- or hare- shaped.  Breeds that are swimmers like Labrador Retrievers and Newfoundlands have cat-shaped webbed paws.

And dogs like the Dachshund that hunt small animals that burrow also have webbed feet.  This allows them to move more dirt when they dig.

Cold climate breeds will have very wide paws for traction on snow and ice. The Newfoundland has the king of all paws… huge webbed feet with long toes that help them negotiate the icy terrain and frigid waters of Newfoundland.

2)  Dogs are digitigrades.

Digitigrades walk on their toes not their heels.  This enables them to move more quickly and quietly than an animal that carries their weight in their heels.

3)   Each paw has digital pads, a metacarpal pad and a carpal pad.

The 4 digital pads and 1 metacarpal pad act as shock absorbers for the bones and joints in the foot.

The carpal pad helps with balance, slowing down and stopping.

Dog Paw

Photo Credit: Eric Isselee/Shutterstock

Dogs that spend a lot of time outside and are active will have rougher thicker pads than the couch potato that spends most of their days inside.

The pads help your dog distinguish between types of terrain.  As your dog ages, the pads become more sensitive and adaptable to different surfaces.

If you try booties to protect the pads, your dog may resist because they rely on their pads to identify the surface they’re walking on.

The pads insulate the inner tissue of the paws from extreme temperatures. This is why their feet don’t get cold when walking in the snow.  The fatty tissue that makes up the pads doesn’t freeze like normal skin would.

They can, however, burn very quickly on hot pavement.  This time of year be sure to test the pavement with the palm of your hand before letting your dog walk on it.  If you can hold your hand on the street for at least 10 seconds without it being too hot, it’s probably safe for your dog.

Pads can get irritated not only from a hot surface but also from walking on rock salt and other chemicals on the ground.  Not to mention the danger of your dog ingesting those chemicals if they lick their paws.

Booties are good protection, especially if you live in a place like Arizona where summer temps reach 115.  But as I said your dog may fight them, or be tentative when walking with them.

4)   That corn chip smell is bacteria.

If you’ve ever thought that Frito scent was just another cute thing about your baby, you’ll be surprised to learn it’s a build up of bacteria over time.  That’s why you won’t notice it on a puppy.

It’s normal though and rarely causes any problems.

5)   There are sweat glands in your dog’s paws.

Dogs only produce sweat on parts of their bodies not covered with fur, like the nose and the pads of their feet.  Their primary means of cooling the body is by panting.  But the sweat glands in the paws help with the cooling process.

When a dog is nervous or stressed, their paw pads may be moist—like sweaty palms in humans.

6)   Dewclaws are the remnants of thumbs.

You’ll find dewclaws on the front paws of most dogs.  Sometimes they’re on the back paws too.  And some breeds like the Beauceron, Great Pyrenees, and Briard have double dewclaws on the back paws.

Front dews contain bone and muscle and are good for gripping a chew toy.

But there’s no muscle or bone in the back dews, making them pretty useless.

But breeds with double dews use them for gripping when walking on steep slopes.  Or if they’re herding dogs, they’ll use them when they’re on the backs of the sheep to hold on.

7)   Claws grow out of the bone unlike human fingernails.

As a result, they share the blood supply with the bone.  The blood supply is visible in the nail.  It’s called the quick.  The quick also has nerves.  If you clip it while trimming the nails, it’s painful and bleeds a lot.

It’s easy to see the quick on a dog with white claws.  If the claws are black or opaque, it’s more difficult. Clip only the pointed end or let a pro do it if you’re not sure where the quick ends.

Claws are tougher and thicker than fingernails but they grow just as fast. It’s important to maintain them so they don’t grow so long they hinder your dog’s ability to walk.

Active dogs can keep the length under control just from wearing them down on the ground.  If your dog isn’t very active, you’ll need to trim them or ask your vet to do it.

8)   You can’t predict the size of your adult dog by the size of its puppy feet.

Contrary to popular belief, a puppy’s paws are not always a good indicator of their adult size.

Bulldog puppy paws are enormous but they don’t grow to be big dogs.  Some times a puppy with big paws will be big.  But the best indicator of a puppy’s ultimate size is its breed, or combination of breeds, and the size of its parents.

A puppy will not usually be bigger than its biggest parent.  And most pups will reach 75% of their adult height by the time they’re 6 months old.

Little paws are one more perfect thing about a puppy.  They’re just adorable in every way.

So be sure to get your puppy used to having their paws handled from the time they’re young.  Massage them regularly.

And continue massaging them when they’re adults.  Paw massages are good for your dog’s feet. They’re a good way to find things that shouldn’t be there.  And they’re a great way to bond with your pet.

What do you think about doggy paws?  Tell us in the comment section at the top of the page.

7 Signs Your Pet Has Seasonal Allergies

It’s April and everyone in my home is sneezing, wheezing, coughing or scratching… including our dog.

Spring is a beautiful time of year.  Everything’s in bloom.  The bees are buzzing.  And the landscape is vibrant… no matter where you live.  But with all that pollen comes allergies.

And our pets suffer too.

Pets may have some of the same symptoms as humans.  But unlike humans, the telltale sign of seasonal allergies in pets is a lot of scratching.

Their allergies usually manifest in allergic dermatitis—skin irritation or inflammation.

Because their symptoms are different than ours, their suffering often goes unnoticed. But they can be just as miserable.

Here are 7 signs your pet has allergies:

1)  Chewing or licking their feet

You’ll notice redness between their pads or toes from excessive licking or chewing.

2)  Constant licking of their body or groin

If the licking continues, this can cause loss of hair, redness, scabbing and hot spots.

3)  Rubbing their face on furniture, carpet, grass, walls

Excessive itchiness is so uncomfortable, your pet will rub against anything to relieve it. The stress of itching and scratching can even cause loose stools.

4)  Inflamed or infected ears

Head shaking, ear scratching, hair loss, odor or discharge around ears, are signs there’s a problem.  Allergies can cause yeast or bacteria to grow in the ear resulting in infection.

5)  Recurrent hot spots (dogs) or facial scabbing (cats)

The scratching can make your pet’s skin inflamed and infected.  In dogs, a hot spot may form.  This is a loss of hair on a patch of skin that becomes red, oozy and inflamed.  On your cat, you may see scabs on the face.  Not likely hot spots though.  They’re rare in cats.

6)  Wheezing (more likely in cats)

Pets rarely have the same respiratory allergy symptoms as people. But it can happen. The may wheeze, particularly cats. Or they may have a runny nose, watery eyes, sneezing or coughing.

7)  Generalized redness (eyes, oral tissue, chin, paws, anus)

The inflammation caused by an allergic reaction to something in your pet’s environment can cause their mucous membranes to become inflamed and red.

What causes pet allergies?

Pets can have seasonal/environmental allergies, food allergies, flea bite allergies and contact allergies.

But you’ll know it’s a seasonal allergy if you only see the signs at certain times of the year—typically spring, summer or fall.

If you live in a place where there is no hard freeze, environmental allergens can cause problems year-round.  As a result, it can be difficult to differentiate between seasonal allergies and food allergies.

Food allergy symptoms can be the same as seasonal allergies.  Read more about how to know if your dog has a food allergy here.

Pollen, grass, mold and dust mites cause seasonal allergies in pets, just as they do in people. So minimize your pet’s exposure to these allergens to ease their misery.

How can you treat allergies in your pet?

The best way to help your pet is to keep them and their living areas as free from allergens as possible.

During the warmer months:

  • Soak their feet in a footbath or wipe them with a wet towel after a walk to keep allergens from coming into your home.
  • Bathe them frequently using a hypoallergenic shampoo, or one for sensitive skin.
  • Wipe them down with a grooming wipe after they’ve been outside.
  • Vacuum and clean floors and pet bedding often, using nontoxic cleaning agents.
  • Keep your pet off the grass if possible. If that’s not feasible, try booties.

You may want to try some allergy fighting supplements too.

Quercetin suppresses histamine release.  Bromelain and papain increase the absorption of quercetin which makes it more effective.  The three taken together decrease pain and inflammation from irritated mucous membranes.

Then there are Omega-3 fatty acids.  They decrease inflammation and reinforce the skins barrier.  Salmon oil is a great source of Omega-3.  Look for a food like Husse that already has it in most of their recipes.

And coconut oil is good to add to your pet’s diet.  It has lauric acid which helps decrease yeast production, a cause of infection in the ears.

Talk to your vet before you give your pet any supplement as it can cause an adverse reaction if your pet suffers from other health problems or takes medications.

And talk to your vet, too, if your pet’s symptoms are so severe that the itch/scratch cycle is causing the skin to become inflamed and tender.  This can progress to open sores, scabs, hair loss and infection if allowed to continue.

You want to get a handle on allergies quickly because seasonal allergies can become year-round with continued exposure to allergens.

Particularly for older pets, the more exposure to environmental offenders, the more intense and longer lasting the allergic response becomes until the allergy season just doesn’t seem to end.

Firstly, your vet will tell you to feed your pet a high-quality well-balanced diet free of fillers and animal by-products.  A food like Husse.

Also, avoid a high carbohydrate diet.  Just like in humans, carbs increase inflammation in the body.

Your vet may also recommend an antihistamine to help the itching.  And in severe cases, your vet may prescribe a steroid.

Steroids have many serious side effects and shouldn’t be taken lightly.

Because they can cause high blood pressure and kidney disease, your pet will need regular blood work and urine tests if they’re on them long-term.

And if the scratching has caused a secondary skin infection, the vet will prescribe an antibiotic.

If your pet’s allergies are so severe they need steroids, it may be time to talk to the doc about allergy testing and shots.

Yes, that’s right… allergy shots aren’t just for human kids anymore.  They can be very effective in pets.

With the right combination of intervention and prevention, allergy season doesn’t have to be miserable for you or your pet.

What do you do to minimize your pet’s allergy symptoms?  Share in the comment section at the top of the page.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Unique Needs of Giant Breeds

We can all agree there’s a dog for everyone.  Whether you choose a mixed breed or a pure breed, dogs come in all shapes and sizes to appeal to what you’re looking for in a pet.

If you’ve chosen a giant pure breed or mixed breed dog, it’s important to know their needs differ from those of small and medium-sized dogs.

Giant breeds are unique.  They’re defined as a breed that weighs over 100 pounds.   That’s bigger than some people.  And huge dogs can have huge problems if you don’t take care of them properly.

With a life expectancy averaging 8 years, they don’t live as long as smaller dogs.  But with some awareness, your gentle giant can live a healthy, happy life… if not a super long one.

Giant dogs have different health issues and nutrition requirements than small and medium-sized dogs.  They even have different training and grooming needs.

Before buying or adopting one of these guys, be sure you know what’s involved.

Giant health conditions

Different breeds are predisposed to different health issues.  But the bigger the dog, the more health problems you’re likely to encounter.

Do your research!

Some large breeds are susceptible to heart problems, eyelid problems, bone cancer, spine problems and thyroid problems.

All giant breeds are prone to joint and ligament problems, arthritis, obesity and bloat (a deadly condition) because of their large frames.

Awareness of breed specific health issues will help you catch a problem early or possibly prevent one.

The most common problem in giant dogs is hip dysplasia, a painful and debilitating condition.

Strenuous exercise, exercising on hard surfaces, and obesity can increase the risk of getting it. It’s hereditary though.  If you’re buying a giant breed, ask the breeder for written hip certifications on both parents.

In addition, puppies under 3 months shouldn’t over exert themselves by taking part in your exercise regimen.

Even as an adult, strenuous exercise is not advisable for a dog this size.  If you’re getting a dog to be your running partner, a giant breed may not be the right choice.Speak to your vet.

As they grow, don’t let them get fat.  They’ll need space to exercise every day but it’s not likely they’ll be as high energy as a smaller dog.  Moderate—not strenuous—exercise is advisable for these guys.

But if you think getting a giant dog will allow you to skip out on exercising them, not only is your dog at risk of becoming obese, but you’ll soon find out that boredom can destroy your home.

A good portion of the health risk associated with giant dogs is the danger of growing too quickly. A puppy can go from a pound and a half at birth to 120 pounds by their first birthday.  That’s rapid growth and it can cause unstable joints.

Nutrition is important in this regard.  You never want to overfeed your giant puppy.  So no free-feeding.  And it’s critical to feed a diet that’s nutritionally balanced for the needs of a giant breed.

Giant nutrition

Feeding your dog a food that is intended for giant breeds is essential to keeping them healthy.  These dogs need the right combination of protein, fat, calcium and phosphorus so their growth is slow and steady.  Sudden growth spurts add to the risk of health problems.

A puppy food like Husse’s Valp Maxi is formulated for the needs of a giant breed puppy.  It’s not only nutritionally balanced.  It also includes ingredients to support joint health like glucosamine, chondroitin and Omega 3 fatty acids.

When your puppy is full grown, it’s important you continue to feed a balanced giant breed foodHusse’s Optimal Giant and Lamm & Ris Giant (for sensitive stomachs) are formulated for a giant adult dog with the correct nutritional balance.

If you’re not sure your dog’s food has enough glucosamine, chondroitin or Omega 3 fatty acids, talk to your vet about supplementation.  Healthy joints depend on them.

And if you’re unsure of how much to feed your dog, ask your vet for the correct portion size to avoid rapid growth in a puppy or obesity in your adult dog.

Giant training

These huge breeds are some of the most loving and gentle dogs that exist.  But even the sweetest dog can be dangerous if they are unruly.

A 120-pound mush can hurt a person if they jump on them to greet them.  Or if they drag you down the street to get to the neighbor’s dog.

It’s all the more important to train your giant breed to prevent injury to you, friends and family, and your dog.  A sizable dog needs to know who’s boss.  You are the master and your dog needs to know that.

Start the training early to instill good habits from the start.  It’s a lot easier to teach the right behavior than to correct bad behaviors.  Especially once a dog has grown to be as big or bigger than you.

And because these dogs are so big, they can reach counters and access things that smaller dogs would never see.  This can be dangerous to them.  That dark chocolate Easter bunny sitting on your counter is lethal for a dog.

Be sure to find a reputable trainer to teach you positive training techniques that avoid any punishment.

The most important commands they’ll teach you are sit and stay, off, and leave-it.  You’ll also want to teach your dog he doesn’t get attention when he jumps and he needs to walk nicely on the leash.

A basic obedience class will teach you how to teach your dog to be a good citizen and family member. But you must practice every day and be consistent.

Giant grooming

Although grooming a dog is important no matter their size, grooming can be more challenging when your dog is as big as you.

As with any dog, start grooming early. When your puppy is young, get them used to the bath.  And play with their feet, ears and tail so they’re comfortable with you touching them when it’s time to groom.  And reward them with a special treat when you do so they associate being touched with pleasure.

Maintain their coat by brushing several times a week.  This is especially important if they’re double-coated like a Newfoundland.  If you don’t brush regularly, getting the matted fur out when you bathe them will be a nightmare.

Clean their ears once a week and brush their teeth daily. If you take care of “general maintenance” regularly then the occasional bath will be much simpler.

Brush them thoroughly to get out any matted fur before the bath.

It’s not likely you’ll be able to bathe your dog in your bathtub.  So plan for an outside bath.  Keep your dog on a leash to maintain control and use a collar earmarked for bath time so it won’t matter if it gets wet.

If you don’t have the space to bathe your big dog, many pet stores have self-serve pet washes. Even if you have the space, it’s a good way to avoid the mess in your home.

If your dog is double-coated, try diluting the shampoo, working it into the fur, rinsing and repeating.  It’s easier to get diluted shampoo through the coat than a big thick blob of shampoo.

Drying can take a while if you have a big double-coated dog.  Towel-dry well.  If you will use a hair dryer, be sure to put it on cool or use a pet dryer.

Big dogs need special nail clippers that can accommodate their sizable claws.  Clip small amounts off at a time to avoid cutting the quick (blood vessel in the nail).  And trim several times a month.

Be sure to get them used to paw handling when they’re young or you’ll be wrestling your full-grown 120-pound dog on mani/pedi day.  And don’t forget treats to distract and reward them.

Everything’s bigger with a giant

Expect not only your food budget to be bigger with a giant breed.  Everything needs to be bigger and more expensive with a dog that’s over 100 pounds.

Toys need to be tougher.  Leashes and collars need to be more durable.  Beds need to be larger, and food bowls need to be sturdier.  Budget accordingly!

And enjoy your big love of a dog!

What has your experience been with your gentle giant?  Share in the comment section at the top of the page.

 

 

Worms In Your Pet Food… Disgusting But Not Uncommon

Several years ago, my home was infested with little moths.  Mostly in the kitchen.  My husband and I could not figure out where they were coming from.

When the exterminator came, he knew exactly what they were.  To our surprise, he went right to the pantry to assess our problem.  He told us these moths were in one of the dry food products on our pantry shelves.

We could never identify which food item it was—even after we emptied every packaged dry food into plastic containers.   We found nothing.

But knowing what I do now, I suspect they came from our dogs’ food.

We never found bugs in any of their food or ours.  But these common household invaders love pet food!  And other dry food.

What are these things and where do they come from?

These pantry pests can come into your home in any dry food package.  You can just as easily infect your home from a box of cereal as you can a bag of dog food.

The most common food pest—and the one that infested our home—is the meal moth.  You may find these moths in the food package or flying around your home like we did.

Larder beetles, cabinet beetles and carpet beetles are also common pantry pests.  Thankfully, we didn’t have those.

Moths and beetles go through the typical life cycle you would expect from a bug… egg, larvae, pupa and adult.

If you open a bag of dog food and find bugs in any of these life stages, don’t panic!  Believe it or not, it’s not that unusual.

If you’re wondering how you’d know, the moth eggs are white grey and measure 1 to 2 hundredths of an inch.  The mother will lay about 400 eggs at a time—hard to miss.  And beetles can lay between 45 and 90 eggs at a time.

The larvae look like worms.  Yuck!  They’re caterpillars that will turn into moths or beetles.

The worms will move away from the food before they pupate (make a cocoon).  So you may find them on your pantry shelves, or the walls or ceilings in the kitchen.

Once they spin their cocoon, there may be webbing or silk in the corners of the pantry or in the food packaging itself.

Adult moths are small, only 1/2 to 5/8ths of an inch, and can be reddish or grey/white depending on the type of moth.

However, light attracts the beetles.  You may see them on your windowsills.

But if you open a bag of dog food and find worms or beetles, you have a problem.

If you find these in your pet food should you change foods?

Not necessarily.  Pet food manufacturers try their best to minimize the likelihood of these creatures getting in their pet food.

They heat the food to high temperatures during the manufacturing process.  This eliminates these pests.  But often the problem occurs after the food leaves the manufacturer.

In a warehouse, a store, or your home, pet food is a magnet for these moths and beetles.

Pet stores sell many brands of food that come from lots of different locations (manufacturing facilities and warehouses) where the contamination could have occurred.

Also, pet stores sell birdfeed, a common source of food for these moths and beetles.

Birdfeed does not go through the heating process during manufacturing that dog and cat food does.  So contamination of the bag of pet food can happen at a pet store that sells birdfeed.

Remember too, these bugs may already be living in your pantry when you bring the pet food home.  They will be attracted to your pet’s food and find their way into the bag.  This is a good reason not to store your pet’s food in the pantry.

Likewise, if the pests are in the bag of pet food, they will find their way to the other dry foods in your pantry.

Storing pet food in another part of your home won’t eliminate the problem.  But if these pests are in your pet food when you bring it home from the store, keeping it out of the kitchen may prevent spreading the pests to your food.

But don’t store pet food in the garage. It can get too hot causing the nutrients to break down.

Although pet food manufacturers do their best to eliminate these pests, it’s still not uncommon for them to get into your pet’s food.  And it’s not a reflection on the food manufacturer or the quality of the food.

If you open a bag of food and you find eggs, worms, silk webbing, moths or beetles, return it to your pet food retailer.  The retailer should take the food back without question and exchange it for a fresh bag.

If your pet has eaten the food before you notice these guys are living in the bag, don’t be too concerned.  They may be repulsive but they’re harmless.

If moths or beetles are living in your pantry, how do you get rid of them?

Inspect the dry food in your pantry.  If you find pests in any life stage, throw out the whole package.

Store all foods that aren’t contaminated in plastic or glass containers.

Vacuum the entire pantry especially in cracks and corners where bugs or bits of infested food can be hiding.  Then throw out the vacuum cleaner bag.

You may find a stray moth flying around for up to 3 weeks.  But if you still see them after 3 weeks, you haven’t gotten rid of the source.

If there’s a food product you’re not sure isn’t contaminated, you can put it in the freezer at 0 degrees for 4 days.  But personally, I’d throw it out if in doubt.

Don’t ask your exterminator to spray an insecticide.  That won’t work.

You’d only be spraying the empty cabinets where you keep your food.  You’re not going to spray your food, or your pet’s food.  And if you don’t get rid of the source, the bugs will live on.

Since my experience with meal moths, I empty the dog food bag into a dog food bin as soon as I get it home from the store.  If there’s anything living in the bag that’s not supposed to be there I’ll find it before the pest can contaminate other food in my home.

Have you ever found worms, moths or beetles in your pet’s food?  Share at the top of the page.

 

What Do You Know About Feline Infectious Peritonitis?

In my last post, I rained down some pretty serious anxiety on canine parents.  So this week I thought I’d share the love with cat parents.

Seriously though, you need to know the facts about this dangerous illness to have any hope of preventing it.

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a viral cat disease.  It’s caused by certain strains of feline coronavirus.  It’s common for cats to get coronavirus.  But uncommon for coronavirus to turn into FIP.  FIP affects 5-10% of cats and kills 95% of those infected.

How does coronavirus turn into FIP?

Most strains of corona virus are harmless.  And cats infected with it rarely show any symptoms.  The immune system kicks in and a healthy cat will almost always fight it off.

But in some cats—the very young and the very old—there can be a problem with the immune response or a mutation of the virus that causes the infection to progress to FIP.

No one is certain why it happens but for coronavirus to progress to FIP, the antibodies produced by the immune system to protect the cat go awry.  This malfunction causes the white blood cells to become infected with the virus.  The virus then travels in these cells throughout the cat’s body.

It’s this interaction between the immune system and the virus that causes the disease, making it unlike any other viral disease in animals or humans.

Is your cat at risk of getting FIP?

The bad news is that any cat that carries coronavirus can get FIP.  The good news is most won’t because a healthy immune system will fight it off.

Kittens, cats with feline leukemia virus, and old cats are at greatest risk.  Most cats that get FIP are under the age of 2.

Multi-cat households are also at greater risk than single cat homes.  And shelters and catteries are potential breeding grounds for the disease.

FIP is not highly contagious though because your cat will shed most of the virus by the time it progresses from corona to FIP.

Coronavirus, however, is contagious and is transmitted by cat-to-cat contact and exposure to poop.  It can live in the environment for several weeks.

The most common means of transmission of corona is from mom to her kittens usually between 5 and 8 weeks of age.

If you are planning on breeding your cat, talk to your vet about the risks of coronavirus.

What are the signs of FIP?

If your cat has coronavirus, you may never know it.

Some cats show mild respiratory symptoms like sneezing, watery eyes, and nasal discharge.  Some have mild intestinal upset.

But once the virus progresses to FIP—which can be weeks, months or even years after exposure to corona—the symptoms may not be as subtle.

FIP comes in two forms, the wet form (effusive) and the dry form (noneffusive).  The wet form targets body cavities and progresses rapidly.  The dry form targets the organs.

Symptoms of the dry form are:

Chronic weight loss

Loss of appetite

Lethargy

Depression

Anemia

Persistent fever

Loss of vision

Loss of coordination

Early in the disease, the symptoms of the wet form are like the dry form: weight loss, fever, loss of appetite, lethargy, and depression.  In addition, you may notice:

Sneezing

Runny nose

Fluid in abdomen or chest

With the wet form, your cat may develop a pot-belly from fluid in the abdomen.  If too much fluid builds up, breathing may become difficult.

How will your vet diagnose and treat FIP?

FIP is difficult to diagnose because symptoms are similar to many other diseases.  And there’s no diagnostic test.

A biopsy of abdominal fluid is the only way to definitively diagnose FIP.

Generally, your vet will make a presumptive diagnosis based on symptoms, blood work, history, and examination of fluid if there is any.

There is no known cure or effective treatment for FIP.

With the dry form, your vet will provide supportive care to ease symptoms that includes:

Good nutrition

Steroids to reduce inflammation

Antibiotics

Draining of accumulated fluids

Blood transfusions

This may give your cat a few months to live without too much discomfort. The wet form progresses so quickly, supportive care is usually not beneficial.

Once diagnosed with FIP, there’s no need to quarantine because the cat is passed the point of being contagious.

But to keep coronavirus from spreading in your multi-cat household, clean your cats’ food and water dishes, and disinfect your cats’ living space. Keep sick cats away from other cats and kittens away from cats other than their mother.

What has your experience been with feline coronavirus or feline infectious peritonitis?  Share in the comment section at the top of the page.

 

 

Leptospirosis…  A Danger To Our Dogs and Us

If you’re a dog owner in Arizona, you’ve been hearing some pretty scary stuff on the news lately. Leptospirosis is all over the headlines here.   Over 50 cases in dogs have been reported in the last year.

It hasn’t been a problem here in the past.  In fact, it’s rare in Arizona and when it occurs, the cases are sporadic.  Not this time.

The outbreak in Arizona started in February of 2016 with two clusters; one involving show dogs and one involving a boarding facility.

As a dog owner in Arizona, I’m concerned.  I haven’t heard much about Leptospirosis and knew little about it.  So I thought I’d do some research.

Leptospirosis — lepto for sake of ease — is an infection caused by corkscrew-shaped bacteria.  This bacterium is called Leptospira.

There are hundreds of strains, or serovars, of Leptospira. It’s found all over the world.  But the three serovars most often seen in dogs are Canicola, Grippotyphosa, and Pomona.

It’s an illness that can be mild to serious in dogs.  And it’s zoonotic, meaning people can catch it from their pets.

Lepto is found in areas with high annual rainfall.  It needs a wet environment to survive and is more common in summer and fall because the organism won’t survive a frost.

Arizona is a desert… not a place you’d call rainy.  Definitely not tropical.  And not a state with a lot of marshes—wet muddy areas these bacteria love.

So why the sudden outbreak?  It’s been wetter than usual in Arizona.  We’ve had stretches of cool weather during long rainy periods, allowing water to stay around.

And lepto lives in standing water contaminated with infected urine from an animal with the illness.

It also survives in soil and mud.

Transmission

Infected animals spread the disease to other animals and humans through bodily fluids such as urine.

Dogs can become infected with lepto if mucous membranes or skin with an open wound come in contact with infected urine, urine-contaminated soil, water, food or bedding.

If your dog likes to swim or wade in water, other than a chlorinated pool, you may court trouble.  Contaminated water is most often where a dog will get it.

But any standing water after a heavy rain, or even a puddle of urine at the dog park, can be a conduit for the bacteria.

If you live on a farm, irrigated pastures can be sources of infection too.  And Leptospirosis can live in contaminated environments for months.

If you are a breeder, you should know mothers can pass this disease to their puppies through the placenta.  And sometimes lepto can pass from one dog to another during breeding.  Talk to your vet before breeding your dog if you think they’re at risk of being infected.

Dogs that are most at risk are:

Dogs that hike

Dogs that swim in natural water

Dogs that come in contact with farm animals

Dogs that live on the fringes of wild land where wild animals live

Dogs that hunt

Dogs that live in areas with standing water or flood zones

Dogs that spend time at dog parks, dog shows, doggie daycare

Dogs that spend time in boarding facilities

Dogs that travel often or are with dogs that travel

 

This illness is preventable if you take precautions.

Don’t let your dog swim in natural water… drink potentially contaminated water… or have contact with wildlife (especially rodents).  And don’t expose them to urine from another animal.

Make sure any boarding facility you bring your dog to is clean and free of rodents.  Be on the lookout for droppings.

In addition, talk to your vet about vaccinating your dog.  The vaccine requires two injections, 3 to 4 weeks apart, and it lasts a year.  If your dog participates in any high-risk activities, your vet will likely suggest the vaccine.

Because you can get sick from your dog with Leptospirosis, vaccinating your dog may be a good idea if you or someone in your household has a compromised immune system, or if you have young children.

Also remember to wash your hands after walking your dog.  Avoid areas where pets urinate and wash any clothing that may have come in contact with animal urine.

Symptoms

Depending on the health of your dog, their symptoms can be nonexistent to serious…   sometimes even resulting in death.

If you’re worried your dog was exposed, look out for:

Lethargy

Lack of appetite

Vomiting

Diarrhea

Muscle pain

Stiffness

Weakness

Trembling

Reluctance to move

Bleeding (nosebleeds, bruising)

Cough

Weight loss

Difficulty breathing

Fever

Runny nose

Jaundice

Red eyes

Bloody vaginal discharge

If lepto goes untreated and your dog’s body cannot fight it off on its own, it can affect the liver and kidneys.  Sometimes, causing permanent damage and even death.

There are signs when the liver and kidneys are affected.  Frequent or decreased urination, excessive drinking, or yellow eyes or skin mean it’s time to see the vet because there’s damage to these organs.

Your vet will take blood and urine from your dog.  And they’ll run a titer test to see how your dog’s immune system is responding to the illness.  This also helps the vet figure out your dog’s level of infection.

Treatment and Management

If your dog has a severe case of Leptospirosis, they’ll likely need to be hospitalized.  There they can receive fluid therapy for dehydration and anti-vomiting drugs.

If they’re not eating, the vet can deliver nutrition through a gastric tube.  And a blood transfusion may be needed if there’s severe hemorrhaging.

Your dog will be on antibiotics for at least four weeks.  But lepto is a treatable disease if caught before your dog suffers major organ damage.

While your dog is being treated, you must keep them isolated from children and other pets.

Wear gloves while handling your dog and any of their waste.  And disinfect any areas where your dog has vomited, urinated, or left any other bodily fluids with a bleach solution.

Leptospires may be shed in your dog’s urine for weeks after treatment, even if your pet seems to be completely recovered.  Continue to take precautions to avoid contaminated body fluids.

If you own cats, talk to your vet.  This is an illness that’s rare in cats.  If they get it, the symptoms are mild.  But because they don’t get it often, we don’t have a lot of information about the disease in cats.

If you live in Arizona, prevention is the best course of action.  Avoid standing water, wet soil, and urine from other animals.  Dog parks are not the best place to exercise your dog until the outbreak is over.  And talk to your vet about the vaccine.

How are you protecting your dog from Leptospirosis?  Share in the comment section at the top of the page.

 

 

Is Your Dog A Speed Eater?

I can speak to this subject with a lot of experience!  We rescued our 8-year-old Lab when she was 2.  She came to us with a host of emotional and behavioral problems.  One problem was the voracity with which she consumed her food.

Yes, she is a Lab.  And we know all Labs love their food.

But this wasn’t a normal Lab’s love of food.  All fingers and hands needed to be quickly out of the vicinity of the bowl when it hit the ground.

Almost instantly, it became clear this was no laughing matter.  Most meals came back up shortly after she ate.  She’s our third Lab.  And although all three of our Labs loved their food, never had any of them eaten so fast they threw it all up.

After speaking with our vet, we realized we had to make some changes.

Timing how quickly your dog can empty the bowl may seem like a fun game but speed eating can cause health problems.  These can be serious, especially in a big dog like a Lab.

What causes a dog to eat too fast?

If we’re not talking about a sudden increase in appetite and the sudden onset of speed eating, dogs eat fast because of:

A learned behavior from puppyhood – Puppies often compete with their littermates to get enough food.  That may even be the case when they’re nursing.

The fear of competition from another pet in the house – If you have another pet, your dog may fear they’ll steal their food before they finish it.

Poor nutrition – Low quality food may not be providing enough nutrients, leaving your dog feeling hungry even after they’ve just eaten.

A parasite – Parasites can affect your dog’s ability to absorb nutrients from their food, again leaving them feeling hungry.

If your dog typically eats at a normal speed but suddenly they eat very fast or are always hungry, this can be a health issue—a hormone production or thyroid problem.  See your vet at once.

When my greyhound had thyroid cancer, he couldn’t get enough food.  A dog that wasn’t interested in food was suddenly stealing my kids’ sandwiches off the kitchen counter… in plain sight.  That’s a warning sign.

But that’s not what we’re talking about here.  I’m talking about a dog that eats too fast from the day you bring him home.

Why is eating fast problematic?

Interestingly, a dog’s mouth isn’t even considered a part of their digestive system because unlike in people, no part of the digestion process happens there.

Food is out of the mouth and into the body in seconds.  Dogs have pointed teeth for tearing big pieces of food at a time and getting the food down fast.

In humans, digestion does start in the mouth.  Our flat teeth and saliva break the food down before it even leaves the mouth.

But if your dog is gulping mouthfuls of food, that’s not what nature intended and they can choke. Although dogs don’t chew their food the way people do, they still need to swallow their food in manageable amounts.

Gulping also causes gas.  If your dog is gulping their food, they’re taking in a lot of air, making them gassy.

And all that air is the dangerous part.  A big dog that takes in a lot of air when they eat is at risk for bloat.  The stomach fills up with air and twists on itself.  This is a life-threatening condition and requires immediate emergency care.

And as in my Lab, speed eating can cause vomiting and other digestive problems. If you free-feed your dog, speed eating can also lead to canine obesity.  As soon as the bowl is empty, you’re filling it up again.  And your dog ends up getting too much food each day.

Remember too, that if your dog is eating at a breakneck pace because they’re afraid someone will take their food from them, they may show aggression when someone does.  And this can become a dangerous behavioral problem if not stopped.

How can you slow down your chowhound?

First, rule out a parasite by taking your dog to the vet.  In addition, feed the highest quality most nutritious food you can.  A super premium food like Husse is well-balanced to provide a nutrient-dense satisfying meal.

Once you’re certain your dog’s problem isn’t a parasite or poor nutrition, you can take simple steps to fix it.  And solutions abound!  Some may work and some won’t.

You might need to try a few things before you hit on the one or two that help your dog.  Every dog’s different.

Increase the number of meals you feed.  We feed our Lab three meals a day.  Eating less is easier on the digestion, even if your pup consumes that smaller amount faster than normal.

Try a bowl with obstructions.  They sell slow feeder bowls with plastic prongs that stick up or compartments.  Your dog has to work around the prongs or sections to get the food.  This slows them down.  Or try putting a brick or large rock (one too big to swallow) in the middle of the bowl.  You can also put a smaller bowl upside down inside the big bowl and put the food in the channel between the two.  If a bowl like this has the opposite effect because your dog becomes panicked that they can’t get the food fast enough, don’t use it.

Feed meals from a food toy or food puzzle.  A Kong toy stuffed with food will not only slow your dog down, it will give them mental stimulation as they work to get the food out.

Feed multiple pets separately.  This will eliminate the fear of competition.  You can try feeding them on opposite sides of the room, or in different rooms.

Scatter the food on the floor so your dog has to graze.  Picking up one kibble at a time will slow them down.

Use a muffin tin, dividing the food between each hole.  At least your dog will pick their head up long enough to move from one hole to the next.

Make feeding time game time, which will not only slow down your dog but will also provide mental stimulation.  Hide food in various locations in your house and tell your dog to “find it”.  Start by putting the food in locations your dog can see and progress to accessible hiding places.

You’ll find the greatest success by combining a few of these approaches.  For our Lab, feeding her more frequent smaller meals and using a slow feeder bowl did the trick.  Now she’s not a speed eater, she’s just the typical Hoover Lab that consumes any food in her path like a vacuum.

Does your dog eat too fast?  How do you slow them down?  Share in the comment section at the top of the page.